1 a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished; "they drew up a six-step plan"; "they discussed plans for a new bond issue" [syn: program, programme]
2 an arrangement scheme; "the awkward design of the keyboard made operation difficult"; "it was an excellent design for living"; "a plan for seating guests" [syn: design]
3 scale drawing of a structure; "the plans for City Hall were on file" [syn: architectural plan]
1 have the will and intention to carry out some action; "He plans to be in graduate school next year"; "The rebels had planned turmoil and confusion" [syn: be after]
2 make plans for something; "He is planning a trip with his family"
3 make or work out a plan for; devise; "They contrived to murder their boss"; "design a new sales strategy"; "plan an attack" [syn: project, contrive, design]
4 make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form; "design a better mousetrap"; "plan the new wing of the museum" [syn: design] [also: planning, planned]
- Rhymes with: -æn
- A drawing showing
technical details of a building, machine, etc., with unwanted
details omitted, and often using symbols rather than detailed
drawing to represent doors,
- The plans for many important buildings were once publicly available.
- A set of intended
actions, through which one expects to achieve a goal.
- He didn't really have a plan; he had a goal and a habit of control.
- A 2-dimensional
drawing of a building as seen from above with obscuring or
irrelevant details such as roof removed, or of a floor of a building, revealing the
internal layout; as distinct from the elevation.
- Seen in plan, the building had numerous passageways not apparent to visitors.
- (2-dimensional drawing of a building) blueprint
set of intended actions
2-dimensional drawing from above
to create a plan for
- Chinese: 计划 (jìhuà)
- Czech: plánovat
- Dutch: ontwerpen, plannen
- Finnish: suunnitella
- French: projeter
- German: planen
- Greek: σχεδιάζω (schediázo)
- Hungarian: tervezni
- Italian: progettare
- Japanese: 計画する (けいかくする, keikaku suru)
- Korean: 계획하다 (gyehoekhada)
- Polish: planować
- Portuguese: planejar
- Russian: планировать (planírovat’)
- Spanish: planear
- Swedish: planera
- fpimp plannen
- (aeroplane) flygplan
Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individuals in all of their pursuits. Structured and formal plans, used by multiple people, are more likely to occur in projects, diplomacy, careers, economic development, military campaigns, combat, or in the conduct of other business.
It is common for less formal plans to be created as abstract ideas, and remain in that form as they are maintained and put to use. More formal plans as used for business and military purposes, while initially created with and as an abstract thought, are likely to be written down, drawn up or otherwise stored in a form that is accessible to multiple people across time and space. This allows more reliable collaboration in the execution of the plan.
To organize a series of actions to achieve a specified outcome.
The term planning implies the working out of sub-components in some degree of detail. Broader-brush enunciations of objectives may qualify as metaphorical roadmaps.
Planning literally just means the creation of a plan; it can be as simple as making a list. It has acquired a technical meaning, however, to cover the area of government legislation and regulations related to the use of resources.
Planning can refer to the planned use of any and all resources, as in the succession of Five-Year Plans through which the government of the Soviet Union sought to develop the country. However, the term is most frequently used in relation to planning for the use of land and related resources, for example in urban planning, transportation planning, and so forth.
Thus, in a governmental context, "planning" without any qualification is most likely to mean the regulation of land use. See also zoning.
- Plans are of little importance, but planning is essential -- Winston Churchill
- Plans are nothing; planning is everything.-- Dwight D. Eisenhower
- No battleplan survives contact with the enemy. -- Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
MethodologyThe discipline of planning has occupied great minds and theoreticians. Concepts such as top-down planning (as opposed to bottom-up planning) reveal similarities with the systems thinking behind the Top-Down Model.
The subject touches such broad fields as psychology, game theory, communications and information theory, which inform the planning methods that people seek to use and refine; as well as logic and science (ie methodological naturalism) which serve as a means of testing different parts of a plan for reliability or consistency.
The specific methods used to create and refine plans depends on who is to make it, who is to put it to use, and what resources are available for the task. The methods used by an individual in their mind or personal organiser, may be very different from the collection of planning techniques found in a corporate board-room, and the planning done by a project manager has different priorities and uses different tools to the planning done by an engineer or industrial designer.
Types of planThe most popular ways to describe plans are by their breadth, time frame, and specificity. however, these planning classifications are not independent of one another. for instance, there is a close relationship between the shor-and long-term categories and tha strategic and oerational categories.
strategic versus operational plans Plans that apply to the entire orgainzation, that establish the organization's overall objectives, and that seek to
Examples of plans
plan in Danish: Plan (projekt)
plan in German: Plan
plan in French: Plan
plan in Hindi: योजना
plan in Croatian: Plan (ekonomija)
plan in Italian: Piano (strategia)
plan in Lithuanian: Planavimas
plan in Japanese: 計画
plan in Polish: Planowanie
plan in Portuguese: Planejamento
plan in Serbian: План
plan in Yiddish: פלאן
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